B.A. from Stanford University and his M.A. and Ph.D. from UCLA. He taught at Carnegie Mellon University before coming to Rutgers in 1990.
Important publications include How Voters Decide: Information Processing During Election Campaigns (with David Redlawsk, Cambridge University Press, 2006); Negative Campaigning: An Analysis of U.S. Senate Elections (with Gerry Pomper, Rowman Littlefield, 2004); "Models of Decision Making," chapter 2 of the Oxford Handbook of Political Psychology, 2003; "Effectiveness of Negative Campaigning in U.S. Senate Elections" (with Gerry Pomper, American Journal of Political Science, 2002); "Advantages and Disadvantages of Cognitive Heuristics in Political Decision Making" (with David Redlawsk, American Journal of Political Science, 2001); "The Meaning and Measure of Policy Metaphors" (with Mark Schlesinger, American Political Science Review, 2000); "The Effectiveness of Negative Political Advertisements: A Meta-analytic Review" (with Lee Sigelman, Caroline Heldman, & Paul Babbitt, American Political Science Review, 1999); "Voting Correctly" (with David Redlawsk, American Political Science Review, 1997); Political Cognition: The 19th Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition.(co-edited with David Sears, Erlbaum, 1986); "Two Explanations for Negativity Effects in Political Behavior." American Journal of Political Science, 1985); and "Self-Interest Vs. Symbolic Politics in Policy Attitudes and Presidential Voting." (with David Sears, Tom Tyler, and Harris Allen, American Political Science Review, 1980).
His chief research interests include political cognition and political decision-making; media effects in political campaigns; the effects of metaphors in public opinion and political persuasion; institutional means for improving democratic representation; the role of self-interest in political attitudes and behavior; and health policy. His research has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Health, and the Ford Foundation.