How do civil wars end? How can peace be established and maintained? This course examines the process by which belligerents and outside actors negotiate to end civil wars and establish peace. The course will take stock of contemporary international efforts to build peace with specific attention to peacekeeping, demobilization, transitional justice, power-sharing arrangements, elections, and post-conflict aid. The course concludes with a discussion of war’s less-recognized consequences, raising questions about the nature and quality of peace.